Magnetic and Magnetic Materials
When it comes to magnetic materials, we have to talk about “magnetic” first. Experiments have shown that any substance can be magnetized more or less in an external magnetic field, but the degree of magnetization is different. According to the characteristics of substances in the external magnetic field, substances can be divided into five categories: paramagnetic substances, diamagnetic substances, Ferromagnetic material, Ferrous magnetic substance, anti-ferromagnetic substances.
Comprehensive introduction of magnetic and magnetic materials
Paramagnetic substances: substances that can be magnetized in the direction of the magnetic field when they are moved closer to the magnetic field, but are weak and can be measured with precision instruments; if the external magnetic field is removed, the internal magnetic field will also be zero, resulting in It is not magnetic. Such as aluminum, oxygen and so on.
A diamagnetic substance: a substance having a negative magnetic susceptibility. When subjected to an external magnetic field, an induced electron circulation is generated in the molecule, and the magnetic moment generated by it is opposite to the direction of the external magnetic field, that is, the direction of the magnetic field and the external magnetic field after magnetization. The opposite direction. All organic compounds are diamagnetic, and graphite, lead, water, etc. are all diamagnetic substances.
Ferromagnetic material: A substance that is magnetized after being magnetized by an external magnetic field and retains its magnetization even if the external magnetic field disappears. Iron, cobalt, and nickel are ferromagnetic substances.
Ferrous magnetic material: macroscopic magnetic and ferromagnetic are the same, only the magnetic susceptibility is lower, and the typical ferrimagnetic material is ferrite. The most significant difference between them and ferromagnetic materials is the difference in internal magnetic structure.
Anti-ferromagnetic material: Inside the antiferromagnetic material, the spins of adjacent valence electrons tend to be in opposite directions. This material has a net magnetic moment of zero and does not generate a magnetic field. This substance is less common and most antiferromagnetic substances are only present in low temperature conditions. Assuming that the temperature exceeds a certain value, it usually becomes paramagnetic. For example, chromium, manganese, and the like all have antiferromagnetic properties.
We refer to paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials as weak magnetic materials, and ferromagnetic materials and ferrimagnetic materials as ferromagnetic substances. Generally speaking, a magnetic material generally refers to a ferromagnetic substance.
Magnetic materials can be divided into soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, and functional magnetic materials according to their use.
Soft magnetic material: It can achieve maximum magnetization with a minimum external magnetic field and is a magnetic material with low coercivity and high magnetic permeability. Soft magnetic materials are easy to magnetize and are also prone to demagnetization. For example: soft ferrite, amorphous nanocrystalline alloy.
Hard magnetic material: also known as permanent magnet material, refers to a material that is difficult to magnetize and difficult to demagnetize after magnetization. Its main features are high coercivity, including rare earth permanent magnet materials, metallic permanent magnet materials and permanent ferrites.
Functional magnetic materials: mainly magnetostrictive materials, magnetic recording materials, magnetoresistance materials, magnetic foam materials, magneto-optical materials and magnetic thin film materials.
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