National Standard Evolution and Common Preparation Methods of Sintered NdFeB
China’s rare earth permanent magnets have the strength to reach the top of the world’s magnetic materials market. This is not only because my country is rich in rare earth resources and undertakes the huge production volume of global permanent magnets, but also because the country strongly supports green development, and my country’s scientific research institutions and enterprises The result of the continuous efforts of the business unit. It is unimaginable that China’s magnet industry has a large volume and rapid development in the world’s permanent magnet field. At present, China is fully capable of accepting permanent magnet orders from global users, not only in terms of quantity, but also in terms of quality, which was completely impossible more than a decade ago.
Although the sintered NdFeB permanent magnet technology has been developed for more than 40 years and has become increasingly mature, the obtained magnetic energy product is very close to the theoretical value (64MGOe), but the related technology research and development has not stopped. With the continuous improvement of the technical level, our country’s technical standards from generation to generation have also been updated and iterated. Let me give you a detailed introduction to the development of my country’s sintered NdFeB national standard and the preparation process of related domestic grades.
Cover image of each generation of national standard for sintered NdFeB permanent magnet materials in China
The successive national standards of sintered NdFeB in my country are as follows:
The current national standard for sintered NdFeB was promulgated by the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine and the Standardization Committee on October 14, 2017. The standard was implemented in May 2018. Compared with GB/T 13560-2009, the new The version of the national standard adds rare earth technical terms, new character grade examples, test method regulations, and squareness parameter ranges, etc.
China’s current standard for sintered NdFeB permanent magnet materials GB/T 13560-2017
In fact, the development of the brand name of my country’s magnetic steel can be found from the update iteration of the national standard:
The first generation of GB/T 13560-1992 was formulated with full reference to the then international standard IEC 404-8-1 (1986). Due to the limited technology at that time, the domestic high-grade magnets were far from reaching the world’s advanced level, so there were certain The same is true for the technical limitations of magnetic steel standards. Preparation Methods of Sintered NdFeB
GB/T 13560-2000, the performance standard of magnetic steel is still in the backward stage. However, in the version of GB/T 13560-2000, my country began to have independent trademark requirements . For example, the coercive force is divided into six gears of N, M, H, SH, UH, and EH.
In GB/T 13560-2009, the TH (ie: AH) gear is added. That is to say, from now on, our country’s standards will gradually outperform the international standard IEC 60404-8-1-2015. The coercive force reaches 2786kA/m, and new related content such as character grade notes (as shown in the figure below).
Notes on GB/T 13560-2009 Character Grades
The requirements for intrinsic coercive force in GB/T 13560-2017 range from 875kA/m to 2786kA/m, while the international standard IEC 60404-8-1-2015 requires intrinsic coercive force Hcj, a key indicator of permanent magnet materials. The requirements are from 900kA/m to 2400kA/m. In terms of this technical index, the scope of my country’s national standards has fully covered international standards, and the scope is wider and more universal. my country’s national standard divides the coercive force into seven gears: N, M, H, SH, UH, EH, and TH. As far as the test method is concerned, GB/T 13560-2017 stipulates that N, M, H, SH, The detection method of UH magnetic steel shall be carried out according to GB/T 3217, and the detection method of EH and TH shall be carried out according to GB/T 29628. In addition, new technical means and test methods have been added to GB/T 13560-2017. Preparation Methods of Sintered NdFeB
In fact, every update of technical standards and every iteration of project indicators is not only the fundamental guarantee for the quality of permanent magnets in my country, but also the proof of the hard work of generations of permanent magnets. The above is the development process of my country’s sintered NdFeB national standard, so what is the preparation process of related domestic brands?
At present, the commonly used preparation methods in the domestic sintered NdFeB industry include: single alloy sintering, double alloy powder sintering and grain boundary infiltration.
1) Single alloy method:
Fields such as 3C electronics, artificial intelligence, low-power motors, and electric bicycles generally use a single alloy method, that is, the raw materials are directly smelted and powder pressed and sintered. At present, the highest coercive force of a single alloy in the industry can reach the AH gear, but because the cost is too high, a large amount of heavy rare earth materials are required, so such a high coercive force is generally used for double alloys. Currently available grades for a single alloy: 56M (high remanence version), 20AH (high coercive force version).
2) Double alloy method:
Fields such as wind power and industrial motors generally use the double alloy method. These fields have high requirements for coercivity and remanence, and the specifications are large, which is not conducive to penetration. Therefore, the most important method used in the industry is the double alloy method. and single alloy method. In 1990, researchers proposed a new dual-alloy process , that is, to prepare NdFeB magnets by smelting two master alloys. The two alloys are crushed into coarse powders and mixed in a certain proportion, and then obtained by jet mill or ball mill. particle size, and then magnetic field orientation forming and sintering to make a magnet . At present, the grades that can be prepared by the double alloy method include: ultra-high coercive force UH grade, ultra-high coercive force SH grade, and the maximum magnetic energy product BH(max) can even reach 48MGOe.
3) Grain boundary infiltration method:
At present, the new energy automobile industry generally uses NdFeB permanent magnet materials as the preferred magnets for its engines and air-conditioning compressors. In addition, this method will also be used in the fields of air-conditioning compressors, energy-saving elevators, and electric bicycles. The aim is to further save costs. The grain boundary infiltration method mainly uses the principle of element diffusion to allow elements (such as Dy and Tb) that are conducive to improving the anisotropy of the alloy magnetic crystals to enter the grain boundary and change the interface composition of the grain boundary phase, thereby increasing the local anisotropy field. Inhibiting the nucleation of reverse domains at grain boundaries can increase the coercive force of materials . At present, the grades that can be achieved through grain boundary diffusion technology include: 54SH, 48UH, 38UH, 38SH, 38AH…etc.
Schematic diagram of grain boundary diffusion
Supplementary knowledge points:
1. In the national standard, the test method of material remanence temperature coefficient and intrinsic coercive force temperature coefficient shall be carried out according to the provisions of GB/T 24270; the test method of coating shall be carried out according to the provisions of GB/T 34491;
2. The maximum magnetic energy product of SmCo permanent magnets can reach 35MGOe, and the theoretical maximum magnetic energy product of NdFeB permanent magnets is 64MGOe.