The Ingredients and Effects of Sintered Neodymium Iron Boron
We all know that the main raw materials of sintered NdFeB permanent magnets are three elements: neodymium, iron and boron, but in addition, many other elements will be added to the raw materials, and these elements play different roles in the magnet. , Manufacturers often make product formula design according to the needs of users, and the raw material formula can be said to be the top secret information of each manufacturer.
More than a dozen elements of sintered NdFeB are just like the various seasonings we need to add to a delicacy. It is precisely because of the scientific and regular combination of these elements with different inherent characteristics and functions that we have made our NdFeB Boron comes in a wide variety of grades and properties. Finding out the significance of each element is of great significance for us to better understand the performance and manufacturing cost of different grades. Below we briefly introduce the value of these elements.
For easier understanding, we can divide the constituent elements of NdFeB into three categories:
◇ One is the main elements RE (Ce, Gd, Nd, Dy, etc.), Fe, B, which are mainly responsible for the formation of RE2Fe14B main phase grains.
◇ The second is Al, Co, Ga, Zr and other small elements, which are mainly responsible for optimizing the coating of grain boundaries relative to the main phase grains.
◇ The third is impurity elements, such as carbon, oxygen, etc., which are inevitable introduction of raw materials and production.
The schematic diagram of NdFeB elements is shown in the figure below.
Usually in the production process, in order to make different formulas exert better performance effects, we need to carry out certain inspection and treatment on the raw materials before use to meet some basic requirements. The common requirements of some elements are as follows.
The above are typical reference values of commonly used raw materials. The actual raw material manufacturers often have certain deviations due to different process routes in the production process. For example, the ratio of the two in PrNd will change from 20:80 to 25:75, and GdFe will appear less than 75. %, the B content in different batches of BFe will fluctuate greatly, which requires us to combine the actual content of each batch of quality inspection sheets in the process of use.
Each element contained in NdFeB magnets has its own unique characteristics, such as:
◇ The introduction of La and Ce elements will reduce the remanence Br and coercive force Hcj of the magnet, but its price is very cheap, which can reduce the cost;
◇ REFeB composed of pure Nd element replacing PrNd has a very high saturation magnetization and can be used to prepare ultra-high remanence magnets;
◇ The introduction of Tb element can greatly increase the Hcj of the magnet, but its cost is extremely expensive;
◇ The price of Gd element is relatively cheap, and the REFeB formed by it has the highest Curie temperature, which can prepare high-temperature resistant magnets, but it will greatly reduce Br.
If we want to figure out how to combine the magnets with the required brand performance at the lowest cost, we need to understand the characteristics of each element in NdFeB. The specific element characteristics are as follows.
More than 80%-90% of the material cost is mainly composed of the “high and low” part of the note, where the “—” part means that the amount added is very small or the price is cheap, which has little impact on the overall cost. Among them, the addition of La and Ce is mainly to reduce costs. In recent years, with the continuous improvement of technology, Ce magnets have been applied in more and more high-grade magnets.
Through an in-depth understanding of the characteristics of the above elements, we can figure out the influence of various elements on the sintering process, sintering density, aging process, and product performance, which can guide us to produce NdFeB products with higher cost performance.
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