Fundamentals, Applications and Techniques of Magnets and Magnetic Materials
A magnet is an object that can generate a magnetic field and is widely used in various fields. The magnetic material is a class of magnetic materials, including iron, nickel, cobalt and so on.
ONE. Basic principles
In physics, electric currents and moving charges create magnetic fields. A permanent magnet, on the other hand, is made up of many tiny “elements” called microscopic magnetic dipoles. These microscopic dipoles create a uniform orientation throughout the permanent magnet, creating a strong magnetic field.
Similarly, many metals and alloys have their own microscopic dipoles. When these materials are in proximity or in contact with other substances, they can interact and change each other’s behavior. This phenomenon is known as exchange interaction.
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1. Motors and generators: Magnets are widely used in both motors and generators. In electric motors, a rotating part and an directional part are usually used, where the directional part contains one or more magnets. When current passes through a rotating part, it interacts with the magnetic field in the oriented part, causing rotation.
2. Computer storage: A large amount of magnetic material is used in computer hard drives. These materials are used to store data because they can maintain the state of information without the need for power.
3. Medical Imaging: MRI (Magnetic Resonance) is a medical imaging technique that uses magnetic materials in the human body. During an MRI scan, the body is placed in a device with a powerful magnetic field. This powerful magnetic field causes magnetic material in the body to align in specific directions and allows doctors to obtain high-resolution images.
THREE. Related technologies
1. Magnetometer: A magnetometer is an instrument that measures the strength and direction of a magnetic field. They can determine their position and orientation by detecting subtle changes in their surroundings.
2. Magnetic separator: A magnetic separator is a device that separates substances with metal impurities from other substances. In this device, substances are transported through a magnetic field, and only magnetic impurities are attracted to the magnetic separator.
3. Preparation of magnetic materials: Magnetic materials can be prepared by a variety of methods, including chemical synthesis, sputtering, and physical vapor deposition.
In conclusion, magnets and magnetic materials play an important role in our daily life. They play vital roles in everything from electric motors and generators to computer storage and medical imaging. At the same time, related technologies are constantly developing, providing us with more possibilities.